The basic concept of renewable energy. Classify different sources of renewable energy with descriptions and strengths and limitations. Describe the potential of solar energy throughout the world.
Introduction to Geography
Background – Renewable Energy Sources
Energy development is legitimately connected to prosperity and flourishing over the globe. Satisfying the developing need for energy in a safe and naturally dependable way is a crucial challenge. For developing countries, the requirement for reliable and reasonable power is progressively vital.
It can improve and even spare lives. In these nations, reliable energy bolsters extended industry, present-day farming, expanded exchange, and developed transportation. These are the structure obstructs that assist individuals with getting away from neediness and make better lives.
Rural communities are experiencing huge market disappointment as the national grids fall the mark concerning their interest for power. Starting in 2017, more than 1 billion individuals overall need family unit electric force – 14% of the worldwide populace. Electrification regularly starts in urban communities and towns and bit by bit stretches out to rural zones.
However, this procedure frequently runs into barricades in creating countries. Extending the national lattice is costly, and nations reliably do not have the cash-flow to develop their present foundation. Furthermore, amortizing capital expenses to diminish the unit cost of each attach is more diligently to do in delicately populated territories. If nations can conquer these obstructions and arrive at across the nation zap, rural networks will have the option to harvest extensive measures of the financial and social turn of events.
All energy creation must increment to satisfy this developing need from both developed and developing countries. Renewables alone won’t stay aware of the interest. All wellsprings of energy are required. This implies a rising investment for oil and gas, which given the exhaustion of existing fields, should progressively originate from remote and troublesome territories and unpredictable sources like oil sands.
Basic Concept of Renewable Sources of Energy
What is Renewable Energy?
Renewable can be well-defined as “capable of being renewed, or “efficient of being replaced by natural ecological cycles or sound management methods.” Renewable sources are the source of power for renewable energy. If the ratio at which the renewable resource is expended exceeds its renewal rate, renewal; and sustainability will not be ensured. It is also known as “Green Energy” and “Clean Energy.” There are several forms of renewable energy, deriving directly or indirectly from the Sun, or from heat generated deep-rooted within the Earth. They include electricity created from solar, wind, geothermal, Hydropower and ocean resources, solid biomass, biogas, and liquefied biofuels.
A wide range of energy-producing technologies and kits have been built overtime to take the lead of these natural resources. As a result, compatible energy can be delivered in the form of electricity, industrial heat, thermal energy for space and water conditioning, and transportation fuels.
Different countries depend on their vitality from various fills. In the Middle East, there’s more dependence on oil, as you’d expect, while in Asia, coal is increasingly significant. Source: https://www.explainthatstuff.com/renewableenergy.html
In the United States, the breakdown resembles this. From the pie graph, you can see that about 80% of US vitality despite everything originates from petroleum derivatives (down from 84% in 2008 and virtually unaltered since 2014), while the rest of from renewables and atomic.
Taking a gander at the renewables alone, in the bar outline on the right, you can see that hydroelectric and biomass give the lion’s offer. Wind and Sun based to provide a little more than a fourth of US sustainable power source and are consistently expanding in significance: Sun oriented presently gives 6 percent of independent US sustainable power source (up from 4 percent in 2014), while wind gives 21 percent (up from 18 percent in 2014). Renewables have expanded from 7% to 11% of the aggregate since 2008, which is a lot greater increment than it may sound.
Types of Renewable Sources of Energy
When talking about the classification of resources, we will first see renewable resources. Renewable resources are those assets that can be refilled or renewed naturally throughout time. Air, water, wind, solar energy, etc. are all renewable resources. Nature can easily restore renewable resources.
Solar energy and its radiation from the Sun can produce heat, causing chemical reactions, or generating electricity. The total amount of solar energy incident on Earth is vastly more than the world’s current and anticipated energy prerequisites. If suitably utilized, this highly diffused source has the potential to fulfill all potential energy needs.
In the 21st century, solar energy is required to turn out to be progressively appealing as a sustainable power source because of its boundless flexibly and its nonpolluting character as a glaring difference to the limited non-renewable energy sources coal, oil, and flammable gas.
How Does Solar Energy Work
Solar Energy Advantages and Disadvantages
- Renewable clean energy, as long as the Sun keeps on shining.
- High installation cost.
- It is pollution-free and causes no greenhouse gases to be produced after installation. It is environmentally friendly.
- Cloud cover and air pollution can interrupt the production of this energy.
- Meager maintenance cost and cost-efficient for the long run.
- It requires quite a large area.
- Weak dependence or use of fossil fuels.
- Only available sunshine can produce this energy.
- Almost no is maintenance as solar panels last over 30 years.
- Energy storage is expensive.
- Renewable energy source
- Intermittent energy source.
Wind Energy – Renewable Energy
The wind is a clean source of free and readily available renewable energy sources. Every day, around the world, wind turbines are catching the wind’s Capacity and changing over it to power. Wind power production plays an increasingly important job in the way we power our world – in a clean, sustainable manner.
Wind energy describes the process by which wind is used to generate electricity by using wind turbines. Wind turbines transform the kinetic energy in the wind into mechanical power.
How Does Wind Energy Work
A generator can convert mechanical power into electricity. Mechanical force can likewise be used legitimately for explicit errands, for example, pumping water. The US DOE built up a short wind power movement that gives an outline of how a wind turbine functions and depicts the wind assets in the United States.
Wind Energy Worldwide
Top Ten Countries by total wind installations:
Wind Energy Advantages and Disadvantages
Advantages: Wind energy is an endless, spotless, and proficient power. It is going the correct way in the battle against environmental change. It adds to the supportable turn of events. And probably the least expensive source.
It produces multiple times a more significant number of employments than the oil business and numerous aberrant occupations. There are smaller than usual wind turbines or urban wind turbines to be put in homes, haciendas, and remote spots where electrical systems don’t reach.
Disadvantages: On occasion, when the wind stops, there is no power creation, which is settled with the payment of power between a few parks. Some individuals feel that wind ranches ruin the scene.
Turning the rotor produces commotion, so it must be introduced a long way from the populace. Flying creatures can be survivors of mishaps while affecting wind turbine propellers: Ice Harbor Lock and Dam on the Lower Snake River in Washington.
Hydropower is energy from water sources such as the ocean, rivers, and waterfalls. Since the wellspring of Hydropower is water, hydroelectric power plants must be situated on a water source. Power is created by guiding or diverting moving water to electric power generators. Since the wellspring of Hydropower is water, hydroelectric power plants must be situated on a water source. Power is created by guiding or diverting moving water to electric power generators. Hydropower is one of the most advanced renewable technologies.
The steps in the power production of Hydropower
- The water behind the dam flows into the intake into a pipe called a penstock. The water pushes against sharp edges in a turbine, making it turn. The turbine is like the benevolent utilized in a power plant; however, as opposed to using steam to turn the turbine, water is used.
- The turbine spins a generator to produce electricity.
- It converts the kinetic energy of falling water to rotating energy with a turbine and then using the turbine to turn a generator.
- The electricity then travels over long-distance electric lines to our house, school, factories, and businesses.
Hydropower Advantages and Disadvantages
- Renewable energy source
- Some adverse environmental impact
- Pairs well with other renewables
- Expensive up-front
- Can meet peak electricity demand
- Lack of available reservoirs
- Hydropower is a clean fuel source, i.e., it is fueled by water
- The noise produced by big turbines and can disrupt wildlife habitats.
- It is a domestic source of energy and cost-effective.
- Hydropower facilities can affect land use, homes, and natural habitats in the dam area.
- Recreational opportunities
- Abuse of vulnerable populations
- Economically efficient
- Water demand
Tidal power harnesses the energy from the tidal force and waves action to generate electricity. Tidal power harnesses the heat from the tidal force and waves action as so generate electricity. Unlike other primary energy flows, it is an anticipated wellspring of energy since tides happen at expected times.
This certainty has a lead over wind and solar power since the Sun may or may not shine on a day, and the wind does not always hit the expected amount. Tidal energy is yet not a dispatchable wellspring of power as it is accessible when nature gives it, not really when it is required.
Tidal power is not a generally utilized energy asset right now since its expenses exceed the focal points. Beforehand truth be told, areas had the option to help these advancements. However, recent improvements are making tidal power much more cost-effective and adaptable to a broader range of locations. If support for tidal power continues to increase, the industry will likely grow.
Production of Tidal Energy
- In simple terms, a tidal energy works using a turbine works like a wind turbine, with blades rotating 12 to 18 times a minute depending on tide strength.
- The ideal approach to catch tidal energy is to put the turbine in a thin channel between two landmasses. At the point when the tide comes in, the water ascends on one side of the channel and pours down the chain to the opposite side. At the end, when the flow goes out, the water on the higher side pours back through the channel where the water level has dropped.
- The turbine is associated with a gearbox that turns a generator and making power. The power at that point ventures out through wires to a city where individuals need it.
- It is ideal if the high tide in the channel is 10 to 15 meters (around 30 to 50 feet) higher than the low tide.
Tidal Energy Advantages and Disadvantages
- Tidal energy is a renewable energy asset because the energy it produces is free and perfect as no fuel is required, and no waste bi-items are delivered.
- Deliver a lot of free and efficient power Tidal energy can energy.
- Tidal energy can deliver a lot of free and efficient power energy.
- Tidal energy isn’t costly to work and keep up contrasted with different types of renewable energies.
- Low visual effect as the tidal turbines is predominantly if not wholly lowered underneath the water.
- Tidal blasts give insurance against flooding and land harm.
- Tidal energy is not generally a steady energy source as it relies upon the quality and stream of the tides, which themselves are affected by the gravitational impacts of the moon and the Sun.
- Tidal Energy requires a reasonable site, where the tides and tidal streams are reliably solid.
- Must have the option to withstand powers of nature, bringing about high capital, development, and support costs.
- High power dissemination expenses to send the produced energy from the lowered gadgets to the land utilizing long submerged links.
- The risk to angle and other ocean life as they stall out in the torrent or sucked through the tidal turbine cutting edges.
- Changes to the estuary biological system and an expansion in seaside disintegration where the tides are concentrated.
The fundamental issue used to create bioenergy is called biomass or bioenergy feedstocks. Bioenergy can be followed back to energy from daylight, created employing photosynthesis, making it a significant renewable energy source. As a capacity place of bioenergy, biomass can be viewed as natures ‘ Sun-powered batteries’.
The energy biomass can be changed over into power, heat, or biofuels. Bioenergy can be as straightforward as a log fire or as mind-boggling as a propelled second era fluid biofuel. Bioenergy is the most broadly utilized renewable energy on the planet, giving around 10% of the world’s essential energy supplies, for the most part, as warm energy for warming and cooking.
How a Biomass Power Plant Work
Bioenergy Advantages and Disadvantages
- It is a renewable form of energy
- Widely available
- It is carbon neutral
- It is cheaper compared to fossil fuels
- Minimizes overdependence on traditional electricity
- Reduces the amount of waste in landfills
- Not entirely clean
- Risk of deforestation
- Requires a great deal of water
- Inefficient as Compared to Fossil Fuels
- Methane gas emission but not too adverse
If you were to dig a big hole straight down into the Earth, you would see the temperature getting hotter the more profound you go. That is on the grounds that within the Earth is brimming with heat. This warmth is called geothermal energy.
People can capture geothermal energy through:
- Geothermal power plants use heat from somewhere inside the Earth to produce steam to make power.
- Geothermal heat pumps tap into heat near the Earth’s surface to warm water or give warmth to the structures.
How Geothermal Power Plant Work
- Hot water is pumped from deep-rooted underground through a well under high pressure.
- At the point when the water arrives at the surface, the weight is dropped, which makes the water transform into steam.
- The steam turns a turbine, which is associated with a generator that produces power.
- The steam chills in a cooling tower and consolidates back to the water.
- The cooled water is pumped back into the Earth to begin the process again.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Geothermal Energy
- Environmentally friendly compared to gas or oil furnaces.
- Not a significant source of pollution.
- Fewer moving parts mean minimal maintenance issues.
- The smallest carbon footprint of any heating or cooling source.
- It is moving heat that already exists as opposed to making new heat.
- Suitable for the smallest of houses to the largest commercial spaces.
- High upfront costs with implementing geothermal energy.
- Fewer installers than standard HVAC and thus less competition.
- Electricity is still needed to operate heat pumps.
- Potential of Solar Energy in Bangladesh
Current Renewable Energy Situation
Electricity production in Bangladesh, to a great extent, relies upon naturals, and 80% of power produces from gas. Bangladesh has its own demonstrated saved of the gaseous petrol year until 201532.1 trillion cubic foot (TCF) and coal holds 2797 MT(Million Ton) of fuel, which is comparable to 37 TCF gas saves.
Bangladeshi gas field gave 2725 million cubic feet gas, 9263.7 million cubic feet condensate during the keep going procedure on 21 – 22 September. 2015 with an interest of 3800 in the financial year 2015-16. Bangladesh’s power age development rates 15% in the fiscal year 2015. BPDB expected that the hole of intensity age 1000MW recoup very soon inside the financial year 2015.
The table shows the standard power age in Bangladesh from grouped assets.
Present electricity scenario of Bangladesh, as in January 2018:
|4652.00||5023.00||7069.00||2457.00||2013 – 2020||Gigawatt-hour||Monthly|
Natural Gas, liquefied gas, coal, biomass & biofuel, hydro energy, wind energy, solar energy vitality are the principle accessible vitality assets in Bangladesh. Anyway, natural gases are the vitality sources in Bangladesh, and 2725 million cubic feet gas and 9263.7 million cubic feet condensate are given in the fiscal year 2015-16 and the creation of coal in the financial year 2015-16, 345751.44 metric tons. Vitality utilization by fuel type gaseous petrol 63 %, overwhelming fuel oil 18%, rapid diesel 7%, power import 5%, coal 2%, and Renewable vitality 3% which is appeared in the table, with 9200 km transmission Lines, 332000 km dispersion lines and 10% development of power in the time of 2016.
Available Renewable Energy Sources
The contribution of different instigated renewable sources in Bangladesh
Renewable energy source assets are unique assets that have an indispensable job to fulfill up the vitality need of Bangladesh. The accessible renewable energy source of Bangladesh is sunlight based, biomass, wind, Hydropower, geothermal vitality, and this are the potential renewable energy source to annihilate vitality issue in Bangladesh. The situation of renewable energy source utilization in Bangladesh appears in the graph.
In a complete portion of 3% to the national vitality utilization, hydro, sunlight based, and wind vitality share 60%, 39.5%, and 0.5% percent individually. While in Bangladesh, sun-based vitality is the quickest developing renewable energy source segment. However, the table speaks to the accessible renewable energy source assets, and its innovation utilizes in Bangladesh.
Development in the Renewable Energy Sector Methods
- Installation of Solar Home System (3.5 million)
- Installation of Rooftop Photovoltaic (PV) at
- Government/Semi-Government offices
- Installation of PVs on commercial buildings and shopping Centre
- Installation of PVs by the consumer during new Electricity connections
- Installation of Wind-based power plants
- System of Biomass-based power plants
- System of Biogas- based power plants
- Solar Irrigation
- Hydroelectric power generation
4.4 The potential of solar energy as green energy in Bangladesh
Future Prospect of Solar Energy in Bangladesh
The little segment of energy request of Bangladesh incompletely filled by solar photovoltaic (PV) framework and the positional perspective on Bangladesh in context of solar radiation 241 0′ 0″ N scope and 901 0′ 0″ E longitude. However, the all-out creation of solar energy in Bangladesh 500 MW and the complete portion of renewable energy 39.5 %. Bangladesh state-possessed framework advancement organization restricted (IDCOL) has just introduced 3 million solar-home frameworks (SHS) by giving clean energy more than 13 million of the country populace.
Bangladesh gets a typical day by day solar radiation in the scope of 4-5 kWh/m. The new uber power venture vision 2021, executed by Prime Minister’s power. Worldwide Post cites that Bangladesh introduced more than 50,000 SHS, and Bangladesh is the quickest developing country around the globe. The graph underneath shows the inexact circulation of SHSs establishment division insightful. It lights up that the dissemination of the SHSs is most noteworthy in the Dhaka area and least in the Sylhet district.
The country has incredible potential for solar energy, with average cosmic energy episodes around 4-6.5 kWh/m2/day, and averaging 10.5 long stretches of Sun every day, of which 4-4.5 are top daylight hours and 300 bright, radiant days for each year. As of now, the nation is viewed as a market chief with regards to SHS and independent PV frameworks.
Solar Irradiation of Different Areas in Bangladesh through the Year 2016
Installation and management cost
With regards to worldwide pattern, per unit power kilowatt hour-kWh created from rooftop solar in Bangladesh has now come down to the scope of Tk 5.5-6.5 relying upon solar insolation, gear utilized, and method of the venture. Then again, the cost of framework power for modern shoppers is currently in the scope of Tk 7.25-10.19 per unit (kWh) contingent upon voltage level and time of utilization. Thinking about the current expense of network power, however, the cost of energy is transient; it would take a six to seven years compensation period for a venture to recoup its underlying expense. Therefore, it bodes well for mechanical purchasers to set up housetop solar, and that is excessively moving forward without any more motivating force.
CO2 footprint of the solar panels themselves
The RMG part in Bangladesh, the nation’s driving assembling and fare division, has an aggressive vision to reach $50bn in sends out by 2021. However, to help this strategy is critical to overcome any issues of gas and force flexibly. The business everywhere relies upon non-renewable energy sources, for example, petroleum gas and diesel. The material area is the highest producer among enterprises, representing 38% of GHG (ozone-depleting substance) outflows.
It is necessary to enhance their energy sources, including the misuse of accessible renewable energy potential. Housetop Solar PV can be the correct choice to supplant some level of the utilization of non-renewable energy sources. As indicated by the administration’s Power System Master Plan (PSMP), Bangladesh can create 635MW (17.3 percent) from the solar housetop, and the yearly age will be 860 GWh. Thus, around 576,200 tons of CO2 outflow will be decreased.
In Bangladesh, the demonstrated held of flammable gas 34 TCF, which will lead the nation next 20 years, and as of now, 82% gaseous petrol devoured in the force division for power creation though just 3% power created from renewable energy sources.
However, Bangladesh’s government has just declared a groundbreaking strategy for future power age through the interest of power, developing a quicker rate. Along these lines, this system accentuates the nation’s regular asset investigation and disclosures for additional improvement of the force area and recreates the renewables energy asset. In any case, to satisfy the not so distant future need, Bangladesh needs increasingly advanced research offices and talented labor for investigation exercises both inland and seaward territories.
The administration must work with cutting-edge global innovation utilizing human intelligent people of the nation for energy maintainability. Renewable energy can be considered as a potential option in contrast to traditional energy that originates from a petroleum derivative.
Presently, there is tremendous enthusiasm for the utilization of renewable energy like solar, biofuel, geothermal, wind because of ecological and monetary concern. The administration of Bangladesh has invested critical energy and focus on setting up various activities on renewable energy, which likewise financed by the legislature.